From mirroring to guiding: A review of state of the art technology for supporting collaborative learning

A. Soller, A. Martinez, P. Jermann, Martin Mühlenbrock

In: International Journal on Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) 15 4 Pages 261-290 2005.


We review a representative selection of systems that support the management of collaborative learning interaction, and characterize them within a simple classification framework. The framework distinguishes between mirroring systems, which display basic actions to collaborators, metacognitive tools, which represent the state of interaction via a set of key indicators, and coaching systems, which offer advice based on an interpretation of those indicators. The reviewed systems are further characterized by the type of interaction data they assimilate, the processes they use for deriving higher-level data representations, the variables or indicators that characterize these representations, and the type of feedback they provide to students and teachers. This overview of technological capabilities is designed to lay the groundwork for further research into which technological solutions are appropriate for which learning situations.


German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence
Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz