"Don't Whip Me With Your Games": Investigating "Bottom-Up" Gamification

Pascal Lessel; Maximilian Altmeyer; Marc Müller; Christian Wolff; Antonio Krüger
In: Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI-16), May 9-12, San Jose, CA, USA, Pages 2026-2037, ISBN 978-1-4503-3362-7, ACM, 2016.


In this paper we investigate "bottom-up" gamification, i.e. providing users with the option to gamify an experience on their own. To this end, we review commonly used gamification elements in terms of their suitability for such an approach and present the results of an online questionnaire (N=75) complemented by semi-structured interviews with employees of a manufacturing company (N=8). In a twelve-day-long study (N=20) we investigated the usefulness of a task managing app implementing a "bottom-up" gamification concept. With these studies, we derived requirements "bottom-up" applications should fulfill. The study results reveal that people want to use such an approach and are open to the creation of their own gamified experience, thus suggesting that "bottom-up" can be an alternative to "top-down" gamification often used today.

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