Background and Functionality


The PAGE system developed and maintained in the computational linguistics department of the German National Research Center on Artificial Intelligence ( DFKI GmbH) is an advanced NLP core engine that especially facilitates the development of grammatical resources building on typed feature logics (e.g. for HPSG -style frameworks).

PAGE comprises a fair number of various (and often independent) modules and linguistic resources that allow for a flexible configuration according to different user requirements; for grammar engineering purposes (at least) the following set of modules is typically incorporated:

Optionally, PAGE has been seamlessly integrated with a systematic and comprehensive test suite for English, French, and German (some carefully chosen 5000 test items per language together with rich and highly structured linguistic annotations) developed in the European Test Suites for Natural Language Processing ( TSNLP) project. The test suites cover about a dozen of core syntactic phenomena (using maximally small vocabulary) and are designed to be customized and extended by PAGE users.

PAGE has been successfully deployed (inside and outside of DFKI ) for both grammar development and application building; it has proven a sufficiently mature and robust platform for large-scale engineering (e.g. in the DFKI DISCO and PARADICE projects and part of the VerbMobil initiative) as well as for experimentation and rapid prototyping (e.g. in teaching and developing toy grammars).

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first created: 25-jan-96; Stephan Oepen (
last modified: 9-apr-97; Stephan Oepen (