A Platform for Advanced Grammar Engineering

The PAGE system developed and maintained in the Language Technology Lab of the German National Research Center on Artificial Intelligence DFKI GmbH is an advanced NLP core engine that especially facilitates the development of grammatical and lexical resources, building on typed feature logics (e.g., for HPSG-style frameworks).

PAGE comprises a fair number of various (and often independent) modules and linguistic resources that allow for a flexible configuration according to different user requirements.

PAGE has been successfully employed (inside and outside of DFKI) in both grammar development and application building; it has proven a sufficiently mature and robust platform for large-scale engineering (e.g., in the Verbmobil project or the ERGO consortium).

Using PAGE, wide-coverage grammars have been written for German, English, and Japanese. The PAGE system is implemented in Common Lisp, ANSI C, and Tcl/Tk and builds on standardized graphical toolkits.

  • unifier providing full boolean feature logic including full anddistributed disjunction, negation, and path inequations
  • powerful type system implementing full boolean type logicincluding disjunctive and recursive types, open and closed worldreasoning, templates, and highly parameterizable type expansion
  • efficient bidirectional chart parser allowing for incrementalprocessing as well as for various flexibly parameterized processing regimes.
  • interactive and integrated graphical development environment, consisting of a feature structure browser/editor, a chart display, a type grapher, a command shell, plus other useful tools


BMBF - Federal Ministry of Education and Research

FKZ ITW 9002 & 9403

BMBF - Federal Ministry of Education and Research

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German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence
Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz