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Hexad-12: Developing and Validating a Short Version of the Gamification User Types Hexad Scale

Jeanine Krath; Maximilian Altmeyer; Gustavo Tondello; Lennart Nacke
In: CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Proceedings. ACM International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI-2023), April 23-28, Hamburg, Germany, ACM, 4/2023.


The Hexad scale is a crucial tool for personalized gamification in user experience (UX) design. However, completing a 24-item questionnaire can increase dropout rates and screen fatigue within online surveys. When included in larger surveys, scale brevity makes a difference. To reduce the time required for the assessment process, we developed and validated a 12-item version of the Hexad scale. To create it, we carried out an exploratory factor analysis on an existing data set to identify appropriate items (n=882). To validate the 12-item version, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis on a new data set (n=1,101). Our results show that Hexad-12 outperforms the original Hexad scale regarding model fit, reliability, convergent, and discriminant validity. Therefore, Hexad-12 resolves issues found in studies using the original Hexad scale and provides a suitable and swift instrument for concisely assessing Hexad user types in tailored gamification design.