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Quantum Feature Embeddings for Graph Neural Networks

Sascha Xu; Frank Wilhelm-Mauch; Wolfgang Maaß
In: Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2024. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-2024), USA, HICSS, 1/2024.


Quantum computing offers a promising avenue to reduce growing machine learning model complexity as required in large language models and simulation models for weather forecasts, financial forecasts, or engineering. Graph neural networks are a particular class of machine learning models that have garnered much attention for their ability to deal well with structured data. We investigate how to enhance existing GNNs and find through the inductive bias that quantum circuits are used best to encode node features. The proposed Quantum Feature Embeddings (QFEs) turn raw input features into quantum states, enabling non-linear and entangled representations. In particular, QFEs provide normalized, non-redundant weight matrices in an exponentially larger feature space and require much fewer qubits than fully quantum graph neural networks. On standard graph benchmark datasets, we showcase that for the same parameter count QFEs perform better than their classical counterpart, and are able to match the performance of an exponentially larger model. Finally, we study the potential benefit of using a hybrid quantum graph neural network over a classic alternative on a concrete use case, laser cutting. We find that the proposed model has the performance and thus the near-term potential to uplift these business applications.