Skip to main content Skip to main navigation


Converting semantic web services into formal planning domain descriptions to enable manufacturing process planning and scheduling in industry 4.0

Lukas Malburg; Patrick Klein; Ralph Bergmann
In: International Journal Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence (EAAI), Vol. 126, Pages 106727-106727, Elsevier, 2023.


To build intelligent manufacturing systems that react flexibly in case of failures or unexpected circumstances, manufacturing capabilities of production systems must be utilized as much as possible. Artificial Intelligence (AI) and, in particular, automated planning can contribute to this by enabling flexible production processes. To efficiently leverage automated planning, an almost complete planning domain description of the real-world is necessary. However, creating such planning descriptions is a demanding and error-prone task that requires high manual efforts even for domain experts. In addition, maintaining the encoded knowledge is laborious and, thus, can lead to outdated domain descriptions. To reduce the high efforts, already existing knowledge can be reused and transformed automatically into planning descriptions to benefit from organization-wide knowledge engineering activities. This paper presents a novel approach that reduces the described efforts by reusing existing knowledge for planning and scheduling in Industry 4.0 (I4.0). For this purpose, requirements for developing a converter that transforms existing knowledge are derived from literature. Based on these requirements, the SWS2PDDL converter is developed that transforms the knowledge into formal Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) descriptions. The approach's usefulness is verified by a practical evaluation with a near real-world application scenario by generating failures in a physical smart factory and evaluating the generated re-planned production processes. When comparing the resulting plan quality to those achieved by using a manually modeled planning domain by a domain expert, the automatic transformation by SWS2PDDL leads to comparable or even better results without requiring the otherwise high manual modeling efforts.


Weitere Links