Users As Game Designers: Analyzing Gamification Concepts in A "Bottom-up" Scenario

Pascal Lessel; Maximilian Altmeyer; Antonio Krüger

In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Academic Mindtrek Conference. Academic MindTrek Conference (MindTrek-2018), October 10-11, Tampere, Finland, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2018.


Allowing users to fully gamify a system on their own during runtime has been shown to be appreciated and to have an impact on their behavior. In these so-called "bottom-up" approaches, users are becoming designers of their game experience. In this paper, we report on an online study where participants (n=140) described a gamification concept, without restricting them to a set of game elements to select from. This was done to analyze how they perform in such a task. The concepts were qualitatively evaluated for which game elements were proposed, showing that participants suggested many diverse concepts with a broad range of elements. The results provide further support for "bottom-up" approaches. Additionally, the suggested game elements were compared to every participant's Hexad user type and Big Five personality. Our data hints that both seem not to be dominant factors influencing which elements participants use in such a design task.

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Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz
German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence