Skip to main content Skip to main navigation


Formal Verification of Structurally Complex Multipliers

Alireza Mahzoon; Daniel Große; Rolf Drechsler
ISBN 978-3-031-24571-8, Springer, 2023.


This book addresses the challenging tasks of verifying and debugging structurally complex multipliers. In the area of verification, the authors first investigate the challenges of Symbolic Computer Algebra (SCA)-based verification, when it comes to proving the correctness of multipliers. They then describe three techniques to improve and extend SCA: vanishing monomials removal, reverse engineering, and dynamic backward rewriting. This enables readers to verify a wide variety of multipliers, including highly complex and optimized industrial benchmarks. The authors also describe a complete debugging flow, including bug localization and fixing, to find the location of bugs in structurally complex multipliers and make corrections.