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CLIPping Privacy: Identity Inference Attacks on Multi-Modal Machine Learning Models

Dominik Hintersdorf; Lukas Struppek; Kristian Kersting
In: Computing Research Repository eprint Journal (CoRR), Vol. abs/2209.07341, Pages 0-10, arXiv, 2022.


With the rise of deep learning in various applications, privacy concerns around the protection of training data has become a critical area of research. Whereas prior studies have focused on privacy risks in single-modal models, we introduce a novel method to assess privacy for multi-modal models, specifically vision-language models like CLIP. The proposed Identity Inference Attack (IDIA) reveals whether an individual was included in the training data by querying the model with images of the same person. Letting the model choose from a wide variety of possible text labels, the model reveals whether it recognizes the person and, therefore, was used for training. Our large-scale experiments on CLIP demonstrate that individuals used for training can be identified with very high accuracy. We confirm that the model has learned to associate names with depicted individuals, implying the existence of sensitive information that can be extracted by adversaries. Our results highlight the need for stronger privacy protection in large-scale models and suggest that IDIAs can be used to prove the unauthorized use of data for training and to enforce privacy laws.

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