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Neuro-Symbolic Forward Reasoning

Hikaru Shindo; Devendra Singh Dhami; Kristian Kersting
In: Computing Research Repository eprint Journal (CoRR), Vol. abs/2110.09383, Pages 0-10, arXiv, 2021.


Reasoning is an essential part of human intelligence and thus has been a long-standing goal in artificial intelligence research. With the recent success of deep learning, incorporating reasoning with deep learning systems, i.e., neuro-symbolic AI has become a major field of interest. We propose the Neuro-Symbolic Forward Reasoner (NSFR), a new approach for reasoning tasks taking advantage of differentiable forward-chaining using first-order logic. The key idea is to combine differentiable forward-chaining reasoning with object-centric (deep) learning. Differentiable forward-chaining reasoning computes logical entailments smoothly, i.e., it deduces new facts from given facts and rules in a differentiable manner. The object-centric learning approach factorizes raw inputs into representations in terms of objects. Thus, it allows us to provide a consistent framework to perform the forward-chaining inference from raw inputs. NSFR factorizes the raw inputs into the object-centric representations, converts them into probabilistic ground atoms, and finally performs differentiable forward-chaining inference using weighted rules for inference. Our comprehensive experimental evaluations on object-centric reasoning data sets, 2D Kandinsky patterns and 3D CLEVR-Hans, and a variety of tasks show the effectiveness and advantage of our approach.

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