A Unifying View of Explicit and Implicit Feature Maps for Structured Data: Systematic Studies of Graph KernelsNils M. Kriege; Marion Neumann; Christopher Morris; Kristian Kersting; Petra Mutzel
In: Computing Research Repository eprint Journal (CoRR), Vol. abs/1703.00676, Pages 0-10, arXiv, 2017.
Non-linear kernel methods can be approximated by fast linear ones using suitable explicit feature maps allowing their application to large scale problems. We investigate how convolution kernels for structured data are composed from base kernels and construct corresponding feature maps. On this basis we propose exact and approximative feature maps for widely used graph kernels based on the kernel trick. We analyze for which kernels and graph properties computation by explicit feature maps is feasible and actually more efficient. In particular, we derive approximative, explicit feature maps for state-of-the-art kernels supporting real-valued attributes including the GraphHopper and graph invariant kernels. In extensive experiments we show that our approaches often achieve a classification accuracy close to the exact methods based on the kernel trick, but require only a fraction of their running time. Moreover, we propose and analyze algorithms for computing random walk, shortest-path and subgraph matching kernels by explicit and implicit feature maps. Our theoretical results are confirmed experimentally by observing a phase transition when comparing running time with respect to label diversity, walk lengths and subgraph size, respectively.