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A Reference Architecture of Human Cyber-Physical Systems - Part III: Semantic Foundations

Werner Damm; Martin Fränzle; Alyssa J. Kerscher; Forrest Laine; Klaus Bengler; Bianca Biebl; Willem Hagemann; Moritz Held; David Hess; Klas Ihme; Severin Kacianka; Sebastian Lehnhoff; Andreas Lüdtke; Alexander Pretschner; Astrid Rakow; Jochem W. Rieger; Daniel Sonntag; Janos Sztipanovits; Maike Schwammberger; Mark Schweda; Alexander Trende; Anirudh Unni; Eric M. S. P. Veith
In: ACM Transactions on Cyber-Physical Systems (TCPS), Vol. 8, No. 1, Pages 1-23, ACM, 2024.


The design and analysis of multi-agent human cyber-physical systems in safety-critical or industry-critical domains calls for an adequate semantic foundation capable of exhaustively and rigorously describing all emergent effects in the joint dynamic behavior of the agents that are relevant to their safety and well-behavior. We present such a semantic foundation. This framework extends beyond previous approaches by extending the agent-local dynamic state beyond state components under direct control of the agent and belief about other agents (as previously suggested for understanding cooperative as well as rational behavior) to agent-local evidence and belief about the overall cooperative, competitive, or coopetitive game structure. We argue that this extension is necessary for rigorously analyzing systems of human cyber-physical systems because humans are known to employ cognitive replacement models of system dynamics that are both non-stationary and potentially incongruent. These replacement models induce visible and potentially harmful effects on their joint emergent behavior and the interaction with cyber-physical system components.

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