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How (Not) to Add Laughter to Synthetic Speech

Jürgen Trouvain; Marc Schröder
In: Elisabeth Andre (Hrsg.). Proc. Workshop on Affective Dialogue Systems (ADS 04). Tutorial and Research Workshop on Affective Dialogue Systems (ADS), Kloster Irsee, Germany, Pages 229-232, Springer Verlag, 2004.


Laughter is a powerful means of emotion expression which has not yet been used in speech synthesis. The current paper reports on a pilot study in which differently created types of laughter were combined with synthetic speech in a dialogical situation. A perception test assessed the effect on perceived social bonding as well as the appropriateness of the laughter. Results indicate that it is crucial to carefully model the intensity of the laughter, whereas speaker identity and generation method appear less important.