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Mixed feelings: expression of non-basic emotions in a muscle-based talking head

Irene Albrecht; Marc Schröder; Jörg Haber; Hans-Peter Seidel
In: Virtual Reality, Vol. 8, No. 4, Pages 201-212, 8/2005.


We present an algorithm for generating facial expressions for a continuum of pure and mixed emotions of varying intensity. Based on the observation that in natural interaction among humans, shades of emotion are much more frequently encountered than expressions of basic emotions, a method to generate more than Ekmanrsquos six basic emotions (joy, anger, fear, sadness, disgust and surprise) is required. To this end, we have adapted the algorithm proposed by Tsapatsoulis et al. [1] to be applicable to a physics-based facial animation system and a single, integrated emotion model. A physics-based facial animation system was combined with an equally flexible and expressive text-to-speech synthesis system, based upon the same emotion model, to form a talking head capable of expressing non-basic emotions of varying intensities. With a variety of life-like intermediate facial expressions captured as snapshots from the system we demonstrate the appropriateness of our approach.