Expressing degree of activation in synthetic speech

Marc Schröder

In: IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing (IEEE TASL), Vol. 14, No. 4, Pages 1128-1136, 2006.


This paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of a system capable of expressing a continuum of emotional states in synthetic speech. A review of the literature and an analysis of a naturalistic database of emotional speech provided detailed descriptions of the link between acoustic parameters and the three emotion dimensions activation, evaluation, and power. We formulated a set of emotional prosody rules and implemented them in a German text-to-speech (TTS) system. A perception study investigated how well the resulting synthesized prosody fits with emotional states defined through textual situation descriptions. Results show that degree of activation is perceived as intended.

Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz
German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence