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ReNeLiB: Real-time Neural Listening Behavior Generation for Socially Interactive Agents

Daksitha Senel Withanage Don; Philipp Müller; Fabrizio Nunnari; Elisabeth André; Patrick Gebhard
In: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Multimodal Interaction. ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction (ICMI-2023), Pages 507-516, ACM, 2023.


Flexible and natural nonverbal reactions to human behavior remain a challenge for socially interactive agents (SIAs) that are predominantly animated using hand-crafted rules. While recently proposed machine learning based approaches to conversational behavior generation are a promising way to address this challenge, they have not yet been employed in SIAs. The primary reason for this is the lack of a software toolkit integrating such approaches with SIA frameworks that conforms to the challenging real-time requirements of human-agent interaction scenarios. In our work, we for the first time present such a toolkit consisting of three main components: (1) real-time feature extraction capturing multi-modal social cues from the user; (2) behavior generation based on a recent state-of-the-art neural network approach; (3) visualization of the generated behavior supporting both FLAME-based and Apple ARKit-based interactive agents. We comprehensively evaluate the real-time performance of the whole framework and its components. In addition, we introduce pre-trained behavioral generation models derived from psychotherapy sessions for domain-specific listening behaviors. Our software toolkit, pivotal for deploying and assessing SIAs’ listening behavior in real-time, is publicly available. Resources, including code, behavioural multi-modal features extracted from therapeutic interactions, are hosted at


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