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Looking for a better fit? An Incremental Learning Multimodal Object Referencing Framework adapting to Individual Drivers

Amr Gomaa; Guillermo Reyes; Michael Feld; Antonio Krüger
In: Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces. International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI-2024), Greenville, SC, USA, IUI '24, ISBN 9798400705083, Association for Computing Machinery, 3/2024.


The rapid advancement of the automotive industry towards automated and semi-automated vehicles has rendered traditional methods of vehicle interaction, such as touch-based and voice command systems, inadequate for a widening range of non-driving related tasks, such as referencing objects outside of the vehicle. Consequently, research has shifted toward gestural input (e.g., hand, gaze, and head pose gestures) as a more suitable mode of interaction during driving. However, due to the dynamic nature of driving and individual variation, there are significant differences in drivers; gestural input performance. While, in theory, this inherent variability could be moderated by substantial data-driven machine learning models, prevalent methodologies lean towards constrained, single-instance trained models for object referencing. These models show a limited capacity to continuously adapt to the divergent behaviors of individual drivers and the variety of driving scenarios. To address this, we propose IcRegress, a novel regression-based incremental learning approach that adapts to changing behavior and the unique characteristics of drivers engaged in the dual task of driving and referencing objects. We suggest a more personalized and adaptable solution for multimodal gestural interfaces, employing continuous lifelong learning to enhance driver experience, safety, and convenience. Our approach was evaluated using an outside-the-vehicle object referencing use case, highlighting the superiority of the incremental learning models adapted over a single trained model across various driver traits such as handedness, driving experience, and numerous driving conditions. Finally, to facilitate reproducibility, ease deployment, and promote further research, we offer our approach as an open-source framework at


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