Sar-graphs: A Language Resource Connecting Linguistic Knowledge with Semantic Relations from Knowledge Graphs

Sebastian Krause; Leonhard Hennig; Andrea Moro; Dirk Weißenborn; Feiyu Xu; Hans Uszkoreit; Roberto Navigli

In: Journal of Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web, Vol. Special Issue on Knowledge Graphs, Elsevier, 2016.


Recent years have seen a significant growth and increased usage of large-scale knowledge resources in both academic research and industry. We can distinguish two main types of knowledge resources: those that store factual information about entities in the form of semantic relations (e.g., Freebase), namely so-called knowledge graphs, and those that represent general linguistic knowledge (e.g., WordNet or UWN). In this article, we present a third type of knowledge resource which completes the picture by connecting the two first types. Instances of this resource are graphs of semantically-associated relations (sar-graphs), whose purpose is to link semantic relations from factual knowledge graphs with their linguistic representations in human language. We present a general method for constructing sar-graphs using a language- and relation-independent, distantly supervised approach which, apart from generic language processing tools, relies solely on the availability of a lexical semantic resource, providing sense information for words, as well as a knowledge base containing seed relation instances. Using these seeds, our method extracts, validates and merges relation- specific linguistic patterns from text to create sar-graphs. To cope with the noisily labeled data arising in a distantly supervised setting, we propose several automatic pattern confidence estimation strategies, and also show how manual supervision can be used to improve the quality of sar-graph instances. We demonstrate the applicability of our method by constructing sar-graphs for 25 semantic relations, of which we make a subset publicly available at We believe sar-graphs will prove to be useful linguistic resources for a wide variety of natural language processing tasks, and in particular for information extraction and knowledge base population. We illustrate their usefulness with experiments in relation extraction and in computer assisted language learning.


Weitere Links

Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz
German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence